pr2™ Athlete Recovery Nutrition Vitamin, Mineral, Protein, and Branched-chain Amino Acid Roles

Vitamin A – The best-known function of vitamin A is its role as a coenzyme with the protein opsin, found in rods and cones, the photoreceptor cells of the eye. Vitamin A is required for normal growth or epithelial (eyes, skin, respiratory tract, digestive tract, urogenital tract and skeletal tissues, affecting protein synthesis, bone cell differentiation, and enamel formation. (Fat-soluble

Vitamin D – Functions in the regulation of mineral homeostasis, particularly that of calcium, and phosphorus, by its influence on the intestines, kidneys, bones, and parathyroid gland. Vitamin D is known to increase absorption of calcium, phosphorus, and perhaps other bone minerals. (Fat-soluble

Vitamin E – The only function of vitamin E is its role as an antioxidant. Vitamin E protects unsaturated lipids components of cells from free-radical attack by itself becoming oxidized. Vitamin E also protects skeletal muscles, nervous systems, and ocular retina from oxidation via its functioning as an antioxidant. (Fat-soluble

Vitamin C – One of the major functions of ascorbic acid is that of an antioxidant, protecting cells and cellular components from free-radical attack. (Water-soluble

Thiamin (B1) – Thiamin is needed for optimal neuromuscular functioning. Thiamin is needed to process carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Every cell of the body requires thiamine to form ATP the fuel the body runs on. The best-known coenzyme functions are the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha keto acids and the transfer of ketones from alpha keto acids in transketolase reactions. (Water-soluble

Riboflavin (B2) – Riboflavin functions in respiratory metabolism. Riboflavin is needed to process amino acids and fats activate B6. Riboflavin functions in oxidation-reduction reactions (particularly as a hydrogen carrier) as a component of oxidases and dehydrogenase. (Water-soluble

Niacin (B3) – Niacin functions in respiratory metabolism. The body uses Niacin in the process of releasing energy from carbohydrates. Niacin and NADP are present and function in all cells in oxidation-reduction reactions primarily as hydrogen carriers. (Water-soluble

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) – Like other B vitamins it participates in enzymatic reactions as a coenzyme. Its coenzyme functions in the metabolism of predominantly amino acids. The vitamin is used also in the conversion of glycogen to glucose, and the synthesis of fatty acid from linoleic acid among others. The vitamin is also needed for the functioning of the immune system. (Water-soluble

Folic Acid – Many individuals do not consume adequate quantities of folate. Deficiency symptoms include fatigue and anemia. The vitamin is needed for the synthesis of purines adenine and guanine and the pyrimidine thymine, and thus functions in DNA and RNA synthesis and growth in general. (Water-soluble

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) – Vitamin B12 and folate are needed for they synthesis of nucleic acid and growth in general. Vitamin B12 is needed for normal nerve cell activity, DNA replication, and production of the mood affecting substance. (Water-soluble

Pantothenic Acid (B5) – Pantothenic Acid sometimes called vitamin B5, is involved in the Krebs’s cycle of energy production and is needed to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is also essential in producing, transporting, and releasing energy from fats. (Water-soluble

Biotin – Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin that acts as a coenzyme during the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates. (Water-soluble

Calcium – Calcium is needed to form bones and teeth and is also required for blood clotting, transmission of signals in nerve cells, and muscle contractions. (Water-soluble

Malic Acid – Malic acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that plays a role in the complex process of deriving ATP – the energy currency that runs the body – from food. (Water-soluble

Whey Protein – Whey protein is a diary-based source of amino acids. Whey protein provides the body with several amino acids, including leucine, isoleucine, and valine – branched-chain amino acids needed for maintenance of muscle tissue. 

Glutamine – Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. 

Glucosamine – Glucosamine sulfate provides the joints with the building blocks they need to repair damage caused by osteoarthritis or injuries. 

Branched-chain Amino Acids – Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine; are essential to the human body. They are needed for the maintenance of muscle tissue and appear to preserve muscle glycogen stores and help prevent muscle protein breakdown during exercise. 

MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) – The mineral sulfur is needed for the manufacture of many proteins; including those forming hair, muscles, and skin. Sulfur contributes to fat digestion and absorption, because it is needed to make bile acids. Sulfur is also a constituent of bones, teeth, and collagen (the protein in connective tissue). 

Daniel L. Dodson PhD., A.T.,C.
pr2 Systems, LLC